By J. F. P. Galvin
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Additional resources for An Introduction to the Meteorology and Climate of the Tropics
13 Stratocumulus stratiformis over Lanzarote, Canary Islands. Although also seen as a bi-product of convection, this cloud is mainly found in windy weather over and near the cool-ocean areas on the western margins of continents under anti-cyclonic temperature inversions. It is a dense cloud and, if extensive, brings gloomy conditions. Wind shear near the cloud top frequently causes turbulence. However, icing is not associated with this cloud type in the tropics and as it is at temperatures entirely above freezing no precipitation falls from it.
The image is created from data collected by the SPOT Vegetation satellite. The anomaly is a measure of the density of vegetation compared with the long-term average. In regions where vegetation is less dense than normal, the image is brown, while areas of greater vegetation growth are shown as green. In July 2005 the vegetation was much denser than normal in many areas north of the equator, but there is a significant area affected by drought further south, as well as along much of the coast of the Gulf of Guinea.
2 μm shows upper-atmospheric forcing as a ‘dry slot’ to the north of the mesoscale convective system at 0° longitude. 5 False-colour image from Meteosat-8 at 0800 UTC on 31 July 2007, showing the typical components of a mesoscale convective complex and squall line within an AEW. The squall line and relative low-level air flow are indicated. This can be compared with the 600 hPa flow 2 hours earlier, shown in Fig. 4. 6 MCS development over the Gulf of Guinea at 1200 UTC on 15 March 2013. Surface winds (not shown) indicated that there was an incursion of south-westerly winds originating in a small area of high pressure near 4°S, 3°E.