An Ecological and Societal Approach to Biological Control by J. Eilenberg, Heikki M. T. Hokkanen

By J. Eilenberg, Heikki M. T. Hokkanen

Biological keep watch over is likely one of the so much promising equipment for keep watch over of pests, ailments and weeds, and this publication treats ecological and societal facets jointly for the 1st time. the purpose is to judge the importance of sure organic houses like biodiversity and usual habitats. In a societal process phrases like ‘consumer’s attitude’, ‘risk perception’, ‘learning and schooling’ and ‘value triangle’ are well-known as major for organic construction and human welfare.

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And Lomer, C. 2001. Suggestions for unifying the terminology in biological control. BioControl 46, 387-400. FAO 2000. Cassava research: boosting food security in Ghana and Nigeria. The State of Food Insecurity in the World (SOFI) 2000. Study x8200e. FAO, Economic and Social Department, Rome. A. 1999. A perspective on pathogens as biological control agents for insect pests. In: Bellows, T. S. and Fischer, T. W. (eds), Handbook of Biological Control. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA, 517-548. Frost & Sullivan 2001.

WYSS AND V. 2. Case study: importance of biological control in organic apple orchards Organic apple growers face the same severe plant protection problems as their colleagues in conventional or integrated pest management systems: apple scab, powdery mildew, fire blight, codling moth and rosy apple aphid. But, in contrary to them, the organic farmers have a very limited range of approved products to control these problems. Thus, the approaches to pest management in organic apple orchards rely largely on preventative measures as direct, or reactive control methods are rare.

Growing public awareness about environmental pollution, animal welfare and food scandals contributed to an increasing demand for certified organic produce by consumers. Genetic engineering of crops and livestock (GMOs) progressed in the 1990s, causing great public concern, especially in Europe. GMOs and all derivatives of GMOs were considered ‘unnatural’ and therefore banned from organic agriculture (Schmitt and Haccius, 1992). Towards the end of the 1980s, some governments discovered that promotion of organic farming combined the efforts for reducing overproduction and conservation of the environment.

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