Aerosol Pollution Impact on Precipitation: A Scientific by Zev Levin, William R. Cotton

By Zev Levin, William R. Cotton

This booklet reports present wisdom at the dating among aerosols and precipitation attaining the Earth's floor. It encompasses a record of options which can support to farther strengthen wisdom during this area.

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Sample text

For homogeneous freezing to occur, enough ice-like water molecules must come together within the droplet to form an embryo of ice large enough to survive and grow. If an ice embryo within a droplet exceeds a certain critical size, its growth will produce a decrease in the energy of the system. On the other hand, any increase in the size of an ice embryo smaller than the critical size causes an increase in total energy. In the latter case, from an energetic point of view, the embryo is likely to breakup.

During the updraft stages low ice concentrations were observed in the turret (similar to what would be expected from primary ice nucleation), but during the downdraft stages the ice concentrations increased by an order of magnitude. This observation cannot be explained by rime splintering. In summary, it is unlikely that all primary and secondary ice-forming processes have been quantitatively identified. Other mechanisms may sometimes operate, but their exact nature remains a mystery. In particular, our ability to measure small ice crystals has significant errors and needs improvement.

However, homogeneous nucleation of ice crystals from the vapour, or the chance formation of an embryo of ice-like structure of critical size, requires very high supersaturations with respect to ice and such low temperatures that it does not take place in the troposphere. On the other hand, homogeneous freezing of supercooled droplets by the chance formation of a cluster of ice-like embryos can occur in the atmosphere. For homogeneous freezing to occur, enough ice-like water molecules must come together within the droplet to form an embryo of ice large enough to survive and grow.

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